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Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Today's Etymology: "Again" -- a1616 Shakespeare Taming of Shrew (1623) ii. i. 216 Nay, come againe, good Kate, I am a gentleman.

again, adv., prep., and conj.

Forms:  OE ongegn, ongægn, ongeægn, ongén, ongeán, ongán; later agén, ageán, agán. ... 
Etymology:  1. Old English like the cognate languages shows two forms: (1) ongeán , earlier ...

A. adv. 1.

a. In the opposite direction; back. Obs.

993   Batt. Maldon 137   Ðæt spere sprengde, ðæt hit sprang ongean.
c1225  (1200)    St. Katherine 1359   Ant ba binden ham swa þe fet ant te honden þet ha wrungen aȝein.
a1382   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) Ecclus.13.13   Be thou not to gredi, lest thou be put aȝeen [1611 put back].
c1475   Wyclif Apol. Lollard Doctr. 105   Þe wif of Loth‥loking aȝen, was turnid in to an image of salt.
c1475  (1400)    Apol. Lollard Doctr. (1842) 105   No man leying hand to þe plowe and loking aȝen is able to þe kyndam of God.
1480   Caxton Chron. Eng. clxiii. 147   The walsshmen‥were so strong that they dryuen the englysshmen ageyne.

 b. esp. with go, come, wend, turn, throw: back, esp. all the way back, back to the point of starting. Obs. exc. in the arch. and dial. ‘turn again,’ and as in A. 1d.

c1000   Ælfric Homilies (Sweet 77)   Gecyrde se apostol ongean mid miclum wurðmynte.
1031   Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Parker MS.) ,   Her com Cnut agan to Englalonde.
1070   Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Parker MS.) ,   Swa Thomas to þam timan agean ferde buton bletsunga.
a1225   Lamb. Hom. (Lamb. 487) 79   Ȝif þu mare spenest of þine, hwan ic aȝen cherre, al ic þe ȝelde.
a1225   Trin. Hom. 91   Elhc cristene man makeð þis dai procession fro chirche to chirche and eft agen.
c1300   Life & Martyrdom Thomas Becket (Harl. 2277) (1845) l. 147   And was oute threo ȝer and an half er he aȝe com.
a1325  (1250)    Gen. & Exod. 3267   Ðo quoðen he, ‘wende we a-gen, An israel folc lete we ben.’
c1330  (1300)    Guy of Warwick (Auch.) 3207   Bi-leue þou here‥Al what ich come now son oȝe.
a1387   J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1865) I. 407   Fynde and see, And þanne torne home aȝe.
a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) I. ix. iii. 519   A cercle þat comeþ aȝen into itsilf and is renewid.
1513   T. More Hist. Edward V (1641) 17   But sith things passed cannot be called againe.
1611   Bible (A.V.) Judges iii. 19   Hee himselfe turned againe from the quarries.
1611   Bible (A.V.) Luke x. 35   When I come again, I will repay thee [1881 Revised I, when I come back again, will repay thee].
a1616   Shakespeare Taming of Shrew (1623) ii. i. 216   Nay, come againe, good Kate, I am a gentleman.
a1616   Shakespeare Cymbeline (1623) iv. iii. 1   Againe: and bring me word how 'tis with her.
1678   J. Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress 5   Come then, Neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and go home.
1741   S. Richardson Pamela III. xxxvii. 363   Go and shut the Chamber-door, and come to me again.
1884   N.E.D. at Again,   Mod. Sc. I have come far enough, it is time for me to turn again.
1884   N.E.D. at Again,   Arch. ‘Turn again Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London!’


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